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вторник, 20 ноември 2012 г.

History of the Maya


Mesoamerika name was first used by Kirchoff to characterize the area as a geographical and cultural entity. Mesoamerika includes the land from the Mexican states of Yucatan, Campeche, Quintana Roo, Chiapas, and the countries of Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and western regions of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. This area is remarkable civilization flourished maya.
Nobody knows what the name means "maya". According to Spanish sources konkistata time in different parts of the Yucatan translate it differently. It is wrong to assume that "maya" refers only to a small territory with its capital Mayapan. I first met penned by Bartholomew Columbus, brother of the famous explorer, when he tells of meeting with Indians from Yucatan. They called the land of origin, "maya". Some experts translated "maya" as "desert", others believe that it is a derivative of contempt shouted "ahmaya" which means "powerless people." So - this concept arose from the Spaniards themselves when they so called tribes of Indians Mesoamerika. The most reasonable to assume that the meaning of the name "Maya" is unknown, but it denote an entire culture related tribes.
The history of the Mayan generally overlaps with that of Mesoamerika as they are the largest population of this territory. So in a broad sense to talk about the history of mesoamerikanskite cultures and in close - in the Mayan civilization itself. Conditional story is divided into three periods - predklasicheski (1500 - 300 BC), Classical (300 BC - 900 AD) and sledklasicheski (900 - 1530 AD). This division is made by Silvanas Morley. It should be emphasized that the first traces of the Maya - before 3500 - are not some primitive people who make their first steps in the creation of advanced civilization. They appear as bearers of culture: build cities, measure time, make sculptures have hieroglyphic script. As if they are descended from a spaceship or were rescued from the sinking Atlantis. This puzzled researchers for some time, but due to the continuous excavations have found many stelae and inscriptions with dates that are older than the oldest stela at Tikal. (That it was considered a first cut of date and therefore there began to be Conditional periodizira Mayan history.)
During excavations in Kuelyo, Belize, found stelae and inscriptions of 2400 BC, and the number 9 stele discovered in Uashaktun, Guatemala, is carved the date from which the Maya began their de facto Count: 13.0. 0.0.4 Ahau 8 kumhu - ie 3113 BC Eric Thompson has set the exact date and it relied most modern scholars - 11 August 3114 BC Rely on it, and the authors of fantastic hypotheses by Erich von Daniken, who "determined" that this is the moment of the explosion of Planet X, then circled between Mars and Jupiter, and that the Earth is rescued people, now known as the Maya ( !?).
Disputes about whether this hypothesis is true or not still. However, one undeniable - true, "earth" maya culture is periodizirana in the three periods identified from Silvanas Morley. So - let's say we stop them.


History Mesoamerika

Before classical period

This is part of the history of mesoamerikanskite cultures, which is considered the time of formation and the formation of entirely separate culture and civilization in general. In the beginning, when it was emerging science "mayanistika" there was a dispute as to who are the first people who created the advanced culture of the Maya territory as some artifacts from the Olmec culture proved to be older than many mayanski. (This culture scientists call "Culture La Venta", named after the richest deposit of their remains, as there are numerous differences between the tribes and the Olmec.) For now believe that Mayan initial period "coexist" and have evolved in parallel with the Olmec and later Olmec civilization declined. That leaves only mayanskata.
Before classical period is divided into three phases:
1. Lower phase - covering the time when economic life was based on the collection of edible plants and fruits, as well as hunting and fishing. Gradually shift towards domestic crop to a sedentary lifestyle and the creation of small settlements. Of this phase are found scant simple monochrome ceramics, decorated with sculpture and works of processed stone - blades, spears and other agricultural implements. Major findings are on a more massive objects such as knives, pieces of bone and wood used in bits and metal (stone plates for grinding corn). The clothing consisted of fabrics made of cotton and ANEC (like flax plant). People professed an animistic religion with kultuve to fertility and death.
2. Average phase - there have corn as the basis of nutrition and only supplemented by beans, squash and peppers. Appear first villages, ceremonial centers and priests. (This shows a high degree of development of society, as it is no longer employed with the thought of survival and can create some "surplus" - a prerequisite for the development of a specific ruling elite. Discovered ceramic show more variety in shapes, while in terms of color works are still monochrome. ornaments are made of jade. particularly important in this phase is the development of sculpture. reached us famous colossal stone heads with Negroid people, some up to three meters high, and huge altars. religion in the Maya enters the "nimble leaps" and jaguar as a god of rain, later became a major deity of the Mayas.
3. Premier phase - the period of formation of ceremonial centers, the importance of which is growing. Increase and gods began to conditionally divided into gods and gods of the common people of the ruling class. Construction is second to none - great pyramids were built. Develops and art, especially sculpture, creating the first stone stelae, which depicts scenes hieroglyphic inscriptions numbers dvadesetichnata system with points and bars (simple, simple way to list the numbers in Mayan), dates, based on two types of calendars - sun (365 days) and ritual (260 days). In this phase appears and the god of fire.
It is a transition period called protoklasicheski. In it are differentiated characteristics of different cultures, social divisions are built impressive religious buildings, murals yroglifi and dates. A colorful and decorative, widely replaced monochrome ceramics.


Classical Period

His is the time of greatest growth and prosperity. It is divided into two phases:
1. Early Phase - here comes the rapid development of technology, science and art. Then build impressive ceremonial centers, temples, palaces of the rulers. Appear and facilities (stadiums) for a ball game, which in turn is a sign of increasing development. In areas of Mayan sculptures created numerous monuments dates from the "long count" and enters the complicated way of writing numbers in Maya (with hieroglyphs and images of human heads). Management is theocratic, with well defined social classes. Only at this stage is a policy units with centralized state power (a kind of city-states). However, this period is the time of peace between metropolises do not fight wars, so cities from this period have firewalls or other fortifications.
2. Late phase - this culminated prosperity, but most across Mesoamerika it is in the areas of Maya. Continued rapid construction of ceremonial centers with much greater architectural diversity. In art, along with religious elements there are also purely civilian with no sacred value. Religion itself is complex, with many deities - forces of nature, plants, animals, space objects, abstract concepts and so on. This phase is characterized by small clay figurines depicting both gods and priests and nobles, warriors, players ball, women with high social status, ordinary people and animals.
Last timeframes is postclassical (after classical period)


After classical period

Called 'period of disintegration. " It is also divided into two phases - early and late:
1. Early stage - at this time of increasing military pressure varvaski tribes on the northern borders of Mesoamerika but not yet born Aztec civilization. They started ethnic migrations from central areas of Mexico to the south and southeast. Occurs socio-economic decline, where strong stratification and the sharp division of classes in the society says its. Constant vulgar lifted the insurgency is uprisings. Decays cultural activities, but not religious - the main pillar of the society. More and more militaristic influences and human sacrifice. Develop and new countries. Some individual cities already built protective walls and fortifications.
2. Late phase - this is simply a continuation of the previous, and now finally formed Aztec expansionism and imperialism. More Mayan territories were conquered by the young Aztec empire. Wars are becoming commonplace. Some cities all the time, build defenses. Arts decay entirely by artists just copying old patterns and virtually no development. Human sacrifice reach absurd peak mainly Aztec influence. (Sacrifice of thousands of people a day in honor of the god of war). This phase - and thus the whole story Mesoamerika - ends with the arrival of the conquistadors.


End

The end of the Mayan civilization is actually something very elastic. It's not about any particular moment, but for a period of time that began hundreds of years before konkistata and ended only in the 18th century (??) When the city was found Tsibilchaltun. It turned out that he still resides, albeit in a very decadent condition.
Nowadays it is accepted that largely Mayan sunset with the arrival of the conquistadors. Certainly dounishtozhava and then robbed the majority of surviving until then Mayan Heritage. So - let's stop at this dark and sad time.
Genoese Captain Cristobal Colon, better known as Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), on 12 October 1492. reaches one of the Caribbean islands. The three caravels shake a storm of "Nina," "Pinta" and "Santa Maria" without much damage received Atlantic and ended up in completely uncharted waters of a completely unknown continent. It is a moment that will change the world, and it forever.
Columbus established a colony on the island Hvidad Hispanyola (modern Haiti), thinking that they have reached the islands around the mainland China. He returned there in 1496 but found the colony abandoned. In 1498g.otnovo undertook an expedition, this time to the southern part of the newly discovered lands. His brother Bartholomew founded Santo Domingo on the island. Haiti was the first colony survived. Overall atmosphere of despondency and frustration accompanying the first discoveries of Columbus. Spices and no gold, but Castilian nobility continued to find a path to India, testing along the coast of the New World discoveries. So little by little, they began to find themselves yeast, and a setting of their society and culture do not meet the expectations and dreams of the Spaniards. It would take time to discover the rich and powerful Aztec empire, but in the meantime Maya will now undergo total pillage, enslavement and extermination.
 In fact, even Columbus would have "discovered" the Mayans themselves, but did not want to turn the ship after the small Indian merchant ship, he and his crew when they saw their fourth trip in 1502. In fact, the first contact (that we know) between Mayan and Spanish occurred in 1511g., When the caravel of Captain Pedro de Valdivia crashed into coral reefs to the east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, the width of the island. Jamaica. Be rescued 12 people who fell among the tribe of cannibals who ate as Valdivia and 4 people and the rest left to fatten. However, they managed to escape and stumbled among the other tribes who fought the first. There they were adopted more hospitable (only slave), but rather disease killed all but Geronimo December Aguilar, a priest, and Gonzalo Guerrero, a sailor. They lived among the Maya near Tulum, with its palaces and fortifications. Learned the Mayan language, gained their trust and risen to the rank of councilors of the local ruler. So when in 1519g. Hernando Cortes undertook conquests of the Aztec Empire, the first stop on the Yucatan coast, which attracted Aguilar as a translator. Guerrero refused because he knew well what he wants conquistadors. He chose to stay with Maya, married an Indian, had three children (first half-breeds) and even became a military leader. Bill against his former compatriots and in 1536g. killed in combat in western Honduras, becoming the first fighter for freedom in Central America.
 Then begins indiscriminate enslavement of Maya and their blatant theft. Little by little, the Spaniards began to create more and more villages along the way destroying, pillaging, killing and raping. And it's quite pointless. Gradually, the Maya began to disappear. Ruin is valuable works of art, and all that was spurred after obscurantism sinister crime occurred on June 12 1562g. Manny city in the Yucatan. Then all found manuscripts, codes, statues, figurines (ceramic course, have long been the gold melted bullion) and other "works of the devil" are clustered in the central square and burned under the watchful eye of Diego de Landa, the spiritual head of the provincial Yucatan. "We found them in many books. And since they contained nothing but superstitions and diabolical fraud, we burned them all, they met with much grief and what causes them great pain."
Soon after arriving in Mani inspection Bishop Tauran, who immediately released prisoners and sent the main culprit to justice. De Landa went to Spain and along the way he began to write "Facing the events in Yucatan," intended as a plea for acquittal in his works. This book is one of the two most detailed and most complete literary works of the time, which draw about Mayan life, and as incredible as it sounds - ninety-nine percent of what we know today about the Mayans are due to them. (The other book is "The true story of the conquest of New Spain" of Kortesoviya soldier Bernal Diaz del Castillo).
So gradually Maya almost completely wiped off the face of the Earth and Mesoamerika gradually sinking into oblivion.


Views forgotten culture

In 1836. a Mexican colonel named Garlindo traveled backward villages in the Yucatan and Central America to recruit youth for the army among the local population. In his report mentions his strange discovery: the bottomless depths of the virgin forest suddenly came across the mysterious, extremely old ruins, covered with bas-reliefs and covered with lush vegetation. Three years later, somehow, got reports the New York lawyer John Lloyd Stephens, an amateur archaeologist, who had already traveled to Egypt, Arabia, Palestine and Greece (and passing through the northeastern areas of the obscurantist Ottoman Empire, that is - the territory of modern Bulgaria). He kindled greatly on the discovery of Garlindo and decided to undertake an expedition to these mysterious ruins, having persuaded a friend - artist Frederick Keytaruud - to participate. In 1839. expedition reached the border between Honduras and Guatemala. After winning the local population on their side and a lot of wrangling with rambling heavily armed squads of three other contenders for the presidency of the country finally gained the Copan. There they made a number of studies: measurement described and painted Keytaruud. Thus was born the very popular book "Events during a trip to Central America, Guatemala and Yucatan." She became a sensation, but serious scientists believed immediately. Only in 1842 when the Frenchman F. de Waldeck issued a "Romantic and archaeological journey through the Yucatan prontsiite" which has caused historians, researchers are digging through old Spanish sources for more information. Follow them many scientists - archaeologists, ethnologists, historians, and people are not very scientific interest. The important thing is that so remarkable Mayan civilization was removed from the green swamp of American virgin jungle and covered with a thick layer of dust American history.
From the early 20th century. surveys and excavations in the newly famous and ancient centers of civilization in Mexico gaining momentum. Develops restoration and conservation, which is encouraged by the growing international interest and tourism. Organized expeditions funded by American universities, institutes and foundations, and the Mexican Government. Increasingly began to mention the names of prominent scientists and experts who write and bright works. Along with them appeared a number of authors of fantastic hypotheses watching the whole science as "quackery" (as well as science sees them), which launched a number of assumptions implicit in that the Mayans or aliens from another planet, or at least that was frequented by them. The most famous writer in this field is undoubtedly Erich von Daniken, author of bestsellers in the field. It is interesting that money for expeditions (and a number of international seminars, symposia and colloquia "Astronauts in antiquity") he earns fees from its own books.
 
As serious scientific papers on Maya can be given a number of books. For example, "Ancient civilizations in Mexico and Central America," a renowned authority on all matters concerning the Mayan Spindan Joseph Herbert, "The Ancient Maya" of Silvanas Grizuold Morley, and several books of famous Eric Thompson. We also mention Michael Coe, who often contradicts the aforementioned authors. As scientists doubt the first place must be given Alberto Russ and Yuri Knorozov. They only participate in a number of journals (not write their own books), the best of which is "Mexico for centuries."

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