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вторник, 20 ноември 2012 г.

MARK dragon in Chinese culture


Symbol of dragon in Chinese culture
in category CULTURE Chinese mythology
Nawawi. Iskra Mandova,
University "St. Cyril and Methodius "
Dragon / 龙 / is one of the oldest animal characters whose stylized images are part of the decoration of ancient bronze vessels off before opening the letter. In contrast with Western mythology, however, dragons rarely presented as evil beings. They inspire fear, but are considered good and fair beings, endowed with wealth and luck.
Dragons in Western and Chinese Mythology have many similarities - have large trunks covered in scales, have four legs, horns and can fly, but unlike the Western dragon is Chinese mnogoglav and - Single head and is much revered creature to which the request is made, both the just and fair ruler, so he became a symbol of power and was put on the clothing of the imperial family and nobles.
In fact, the dragon is a symbol of the emperor after the Han Dynasty. During the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC. - '23), Emperor Liu Ban told his mother bore him after sleeping with a dragon is married and he himself is the son of the dragon. People did mention that when Liu Ban his drink over his head takes the form of a dragon.
With the spread of Buddhism, dragon symbolism is absorbed by the new religion, and it is wrong to assume that just because the dragon is present in Buddhist art, he is descended from him. Some researchers give the popularity of the image of the dragon in China that he was a totem of the Xia tribe whose culture underlies the entire Chinese culture. Later, as a generalized image with various other features totem animal, the cult of the dragon becomes better known. Spores which is the first animal from which it originated dragon. Some say it is the crocodile, others - the snake and the earliest perceptions are that in a rainy day dragon emerged from flash.
Dr. Richard Irwin, geographer and historian from the University of Hong Kong said that the dragon had entered from south to north China, as it opens and examines the 25 boats in the shape of dragon heads in Ping Shan Tin Shui etc.. villages around Hong Kong. These dragon heads had much in common with the vast freshwater crocodiles, which had a length of about 6 meters and inhabited estuary Dzhudzyan (Pearl River) 1000 years ago. '
According to other experts dragon was originally in the shape of a wild horse roamed North China. In 1971 during archaeological excavations in Sansintala, Inner Mongolia, was found with the figure of a dragon horse's head and snake body made of jade, dating back nearly 5,000 years. / See. Countdown 1 / ancient Chinese called the best and a fast horse 'dragon'. And today Mongolian folk songs say good horse 'golden dragon, descended from heaven.' "(Niu, 2001, 390-391)
In 1987 during excavations in Puyan, prov. Henan mussels were found arranged in the shape of a dragon in the period Jan-Shao 6000 or prior years / see. Fig 2 / (中国 文化, 2004,63)
It is not clear why the dragon is the totem of the tribe Xia, but it certainly became one of the main totems of ancient Chinese tribes and now his image is invariably present in the customs of every Chinese and every ethnic minority.
According to the dictionary "Shuouan", composed in 200, the dragon is the king of all scaly creatures: fish, reptiles, amphibians and others. If he can become invisible, half a year living in the water and in the spring rises in the sky (when Draco was at its zenith). The Chinese dragon is considered to be deaf, because the word "deaf" / 聋 / in Chinese sounds the same - "Lun" - the word "dragon" despite the numerous legends recreate conversations between mortals and dragons.
The body of the dragon is composed of nine animals: the body of a snake, deer, eyes of a rabbit, pig head, horse or camel, cow ears, belly of a frog, scales of a carp, claws of a hawk and the paws of a tiger . (Walters 1995, 123-124; 中国 文化 2004, 63)
Most often in ancient China the dragon appears as a deity of water elements and is associated with rain clouds, which fly, and often is the personification of the clouds. Therefore, one of the abilities of dragons in Chinese mythology is not to belch fire, water or pearls that appear enveloped in flames near or coming out of the mouth of the dragon.
And according to one of the myths of the earth no rivers and lakes existed only East Sea, in which lived four dragons: Dragon Leung, Yellow Dragon, the Black Dragon and the Pearl Dragon. On land, drought occurred and people have nothing to make a living. Four dragon seeing what people regretted and decided to talk to Jade ruler, who was lord of heaven, earth and sea. But he was true to his promise to send rain and dragons decided to help people swallowed by the sea water and then disperse as rain with their mouths. Then Jade king became angry and exiled dragons four high mountains. But then they regretted the deed and become the four major rivers in China - Yangtze River, Yellow River River - Yellow River, Heilongjiang River - Danube River and Black Dragon Dzhudzyan - Pearl River .. (http:/ / www.crystallinks.com / chinadragons.html)
In the "Catalogue of mountains and seas" which describes various strange animals and plants are found varieties of dragons - "dragons tiger" / hudzyao / - "they have the body of a fish and snake tail", "cry like ducks"; "dragon-fish" / Lunyu / - "kind of like a wildcat," "Rejoicing Dragon" / Yenlun / who 'born administer the Dark "," dragon who responded "/ Inlun / -" He killed Chayu father and thrive (Kuafu). Not able to upload / the sky / so as / land / land began. When droughts take the appearance of the Dragon, who responded, and then take a heavy rain. "," Dragon-lantern "/ Dzhulun / -" As darkness closed her eyes occurs, by looking / open your eyes / - is bright. / / He is not eating, not sleeping, not breathing. Gives wind and rain. Nine highlights tami. "," Born before the other Dragon "/ Sienlun / -" first born / people / Di and Qiang. "
In the catalogs of the mountains, most of the ghosts have dragon parts "to the bodies of dragons and birds' heads," "have a body of a dragon and a human face", "with a human face and body of a dragon", "horse-dragon heads and bodies" and in the catalogs of overseas lands, gods of the South ("Seize the fire"), east ("winding Tranak") and the West ("harvest") riding a two dragons.
Dragons were seen mainly aquatic animals living in lakes, rivers and seas "... Quan River, flows east and empties into Ji. It has many dragons Jiao. "/ Product mountains and seas, 1985, pp. 74 /. Other rivers listed in the catalog with a lot of dragons in them the rivers Shi Lun and others.
Some dragons lived in the sky, a quarter of which was named Green Dragon Palace for the stars that make up the Chinese astronomical constellation Draco. The four star animals who have no connection with the 12 animals of the Chinese zodiac, used for naming the four sectors of the sky. "Even before the II century BC. four directions are represented by four star animals - Dragon of East South of Bird, Tiger of the West and North of the Turtle. Each animal has its own color: the Dragon - the green of spring, the birds - red the Fire Tiger - shining white metal in the fall (of metal plows or swords) and Turtle black as night or water. "Before being accepted four stars Emblems However, there were only three and dragon again is one of them: Feng bird or phoenix and dragon or unicorn Xiulin. (Walters 1995, 123-124)
The dragon image, as already mentioned is very popular with locals and exists in many different legends and myths. In Chinese mythology, there is even a hierarchy among the dragons. The main dragon king / 龙王 / Ao Guang was followed by his son Bin Ao. Fought on the side of Dzhouuan, Ao killed bin. "Another notable king of dragons is Baylun / 白龙 / - White Dragon, whose history is stored on a stone slab in the Temple of the White Dragon in the mountains near Suzhou Yuan, Jiangsu Province.
During the reign of Emperor An (379-419) The girl encountered an old man who had asked her to shelter from the coming storm. In the morning it turned out that the parents bramenna ù January evicted from the house. After birth time lump of flesh that thrown into the water. Lump turned into a white dragon who approached her and she fainted. An awful storm, the dragon otlyatyal and left her, and she recovered from the seizure. Locals buried her grave ù became famous temple of the Mother of the White Dragon. "(Walters, 1995, 111)
Today, the dragon still lives in the hearts of Chinese symbolism and its image is not detached from everyday life, although this mystical creature exists only in ancient Chinese mythology. In South China's Dragon Boat Festival (Duanu), composed at the beginning of the fifth month of the lunar calendar, boat race held in the form of dragons. This is a day on which commemorates the famous poet Tsyu Yuan (IV-III century BC), drowned in the river because of the desperate situation in the country.
There are many festivals dedicated to the dragon with special symbols such as "Dragon rearing its head," marking the end of winter, celebrated in the second month of the lunar year. It is also called Chunlundzie / 春龙 节 / or Spring Festival dragon. "Legend has it that after one year of the dragon land, dwelling Celestial River, secretly sent people rain. So Judases (Jade ruler) it stuck with a mountain and say may again return to heaven if you wait a golden beans to germinate.
As a result, people took the corn grains and started popping them in the hot oil. This "golden bean" sprouting and the dragon was released and returned to heaven. On this day in some areas in Shaanxi Province each family makes popcorn while chanting: "On the second day of the second month dragon raises head and let the big barn is crowded and small to overflowing." This expresses a wish for favorable weather and abundant harvest. In many other places that day soybeans and so-called "dragon whiskers" have become a tradition. "(Niu, 2001, 387-388)
In mythology, dragons pull chariots of various deities such as the Sun, the Siuanmu and others. Dragon accompany and Pangu, the legendary architect of the universe, depicted as a dwarf dressed in a bearskin, holding a hammer and chisel, which creates the universe, surrounded by four creatures: Turtle, Phoenix, Dragon and Unicorn. The ancient historian Xu Zheng, who lived during the Romance of three Kingdoms (220-265) The says that the Pangu was the head of dragon and snake body.
Much later appeared two other mythical creatures New Wah (女娲) - first woman to have a human head and body of a snake and his Fu (伏羲) - the first man who also had a human head, but the body of a dragon. That they both created the first human beings on earth, and their legend was preserved in stone since the Eastern Han Dynasty (25 - 220 AD), which was engraved the fusion of bodies of New Wah Fu and his. (Prof. David Chuanyan Lai, www.cic.sfu.ca / cchf / dragonInChina.html)
Today many buildings in China have their roofs sculptures depicting dragon heads. The palace dragon Gugun present in the form of reliefs on the ceilings, columns, doors, windows and stone stairs, but only in the hall for ceremonies reliefs and drawings of dragons numbered more than 10,000. But what is the exact number of dragons in the Forbidden City no one can say for sure.
Wall of nine dragons in Beihai Park is another attraction that is seldom missed by tourists in Beijing. It has a length of 21 meters, width - 2 m, height - 15 meters and was built in 1756 Despite recent years, however, the colors of ceramic tile, which is made not faded at all. In addition to nine large dragons on the wall from end to end to see other smaller dragons - a total of 635 numbers. / See. Fig 3.4 /
Dragon in Chinese culture, as already mentioned, it symbolizes the power of darkness, and not demonic image, but just the opposite - it is a symbol of happiness and luck. Now, however, his character brings a different message in China, namely, that it symbolizes the progressive spirit of the Chinese people and has become a symbol of Chinese ethnicity.

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