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четвъртък, 22 ноември 2012 г.

Temple of Artemis

Temple of Artemis


Temple of Artemis, Ephesus is an exclusive and unique earthly home of the gods. Once you see him, you will be convinced that here heaven and earth changed places, and the world of the immortal gods has moved from heaven to earth. "So Philo begins to describe the building, which all people of antiquity unanimously proclaim the most delightful in the world. "huntress of the golden spindle", "goddess honorable character", "girl worthy of respect" as Homer called Artemis, beautiful and eternally young goddess whose earthly sanctuary was Ephesian church. She was the daughter of Zeus, the supreme Greek god, lord of gods and men, who lived in high Olympus. Hesiod wrote in "The Origin of the Gods": Heos was first of all and it originated on earth goddess Gaia, who later gave birth to the god of the sky Uranus. marriage from those two deities emerged family of terrible giants Titans and the smallest of them, Cronus, Uranus removed from the throne and seized power. because they are afraid that their children will do the same to him, he ate all of them as soon as they are born not only able to eat at least Zeus that his wife and sister Rhea secretly gave birth on the island of Crete. Kronos fears are justified, when Zeus grew up and matured, he forced him to return to the world's siblings overcame it after heavy fighting and proclaimed himself supreme ruler of heaven and earth, his brother Poseidon give power over the sea, but Hades, the second brother - the power of the underworld.'s mother Artemis was the goddess Leto, daughter of the Titan Who. Tya was one of the many lovers of Zeus, the supreme god. soon as his wife Hera learned of this, he raised such a terrible scandal that "all Olympus trembled." Otherwise Hera was genteel lady, respected by all, and among the gods performed a patron of post family and queen of heaven. According to one version of Artemis was born on the island of Delos (the Cyclades), and according to another Ortigiyskata grove near Ephesus. together with her birth and her twin brother Apollo, the god of light and sun leader of the Muses and archer who always hit the goal, "the most beautiful of all the gods." Originally the Greeks Artemis was the patron of animals - both domestic and wild. Later its field of action is widened and Artemis became donor humidity and dew and protector of forests and fields, in some areas it was even the goddess of all nature, which came into dispute the competence of the fertility goddess Demeter and agriculture; (unlike Demeter hearted obstinacy and it manifested knew how to make mortals forced to admit: in Kalidon instance where it failed properly honor, Artemis sent a wild boar to ravage the terrible harvest). Moreover, it intervened in health because under its authority were some healing springs could be punished with madness, paralysis and death. Since her brother was a god of light and sun, she became the goddess of the moon. Atremida functions at different times and in different areas were not the same and were often transferred to another Goddess From the outset of Artemis attributed passionate penchant for hunting.'s why they depicted as a goddess with a bow and arrows, holding a swan, bull, tiger, lion, leopard and deer (its Latin name is Diana). Inasmuch as hunting and gun are closely related to the war, people began to worship as a goddess of war, so Artemis entered the purview of Zeus's daughter Athena, goddess of wisdom-led war in the sphere of action of Zeus son of Ares, the god of nedotolkova reasonable War. At such position January worshiped at Ephesus and other Ionian cities in Asia Minor, and especially in the Peloponnese to Sparta. namely there even in the ancient times it even sacrificing people, later to its status flogging Spartan youth. way accustom them to endure the pain that waited during the war. Whoever can withstand torture proclamation was the winner and received the award for sale black pig's blood soup. Greatest Greek painters and sculptors depicted Atremida marble and bronze with a brush and paints, Mastery, which served as a model. Originally remained only a few images of her vases and amphorae, including one of durian (early 5th century BC, now in the Louvre, Paris ). Her statues and reliefs that decorate all the famous museums are just copies from Roman times, often not very successful. it appeared the Temple of Artemis in ancient times is not known. known only that in about VIII century BC . BC near the place where now they are its ruins, there was a little shrine with a wooden statue of the goddess: here are found several bronze, amber, gold and silver ornaments, ivory statues and coins, which now belong to British and an Istanbul museum. Later, somewhere in the beginning of the VII century BC, the sanctuary was built and expanded. third construction and reconstruction dates from the middle of the VI century BC But all this is just background . a magnificent building Is not whether the abode of the goddess or not can not be created from outbuildings, rebuilt and repairs, it must be built from the ground up and advance in a fictional plan. therefore the inhabitants of Ephesus decided to build a brand new church a whole new place, more so around the old temple discovered groundwater. they called two famous builders of Crete, where monumental architecture had millenary tradition: Hersifron of Knossos and his son Metagal. At least write Strabo and the Roman Vitruvius, author of " Ten books on architecture. "Pliny mentions only Hersifron, probably Metagal arrived in Ephesus later. However, even his son and his son's son were able to continue construction because, as ancient writers unanimously stress, the temple city For 120 years aims both builders have remained no reliable biographical data. What is known for sure is that their plan was built temple that became a wonder of the world. More than 500 years the church in all its radiant beauty splendor. Numerous priests and priestesses performed worship. pilgrims came in droves from all over the Greek world to make offerings to the Goddess-Virgin, before taking office. every Roman province of Asia a deputy had to honor Artemis and dared to touch any of criminals found refuge in her temple. then came Goths ravaged the temple. said that the residents of Ephesus, though it recovered, but long before this flow of pilgrims who flooded the city changed its direction: all attended another relic of the "venerable virgin "which eventually grew larger temple than Artemidiniya. Finally decree of Theodosius against the pagan temples, the 383 ruled the death penalty over the ancient famous temple of Artemis of Ephesus and sentence became executor of the earthquake, which turned in a magnificent cloister wreck. priests of Artemis fled and their descendants celebrated Mass in the church of the Virgin Mary, until collapsed and its vaults ... and diaper millennial forgotten by the ruins and the correspondence between Kaistar. When in 1863 the English arrived here Engineer JT Wood, beyond Ayasoluk only found the stinking swamps, behind which stretched impenetrable thickets. them he lit a smoke and bursting fire, which won unsuccessful escape fed snakes climbed the crumbling tower Lazimahovata stronghold place to look. Wood saw the west coast blue sea and marshy lands over which protruded the ruins of a great city ... took 2 whole years to remove the 6-foot silt and discover the foundations of the temple. Yes It was built in the shape of a rectangle with sides 110h55 meters and land in the remains of the marble columns. centuries after almost sun lit place where stands the Temple of Artemis ...

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