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вторник, 20 ноември 2012 г.

Egyptian pyramids


Egyptian pyramids
The Egyptian pyramids are the most famous buildings on the ground and the first of the seven wonders of the world. They are the most ancient pyramids discovered to date. Majestic tombs of the pharaohs of the Fourth Dynasty - Khufu and Hefren - were created about 5,000 years and neither the time nor the people could do something with them
Do all Egyptian pyramids are counted among the wonders of the world?
Most writers talk about the pyramids did a world wonder, but there are authors like Philo, who writes the "pyramids near Memphis." Few, however there are those who talk about the pyramids of Giza, there are also more choosy authors recognized as a miracle the Great Pyramid. It is the largest pyramid. High is 137 meters (previously 147 meters is reached., But the peak and collapse), it is made of 2.3 million carefully worked stones that are as perfectly fitting for each other, each of which is less than thirty spans and weighed more than 2,000 kg.
Why were the pyramids built?
Broadly speaking, the Egyptian pyramids were tombs of the pharaohs. In ancient Egypt, it was believed that if a person wants to live, and after her death to keep the body from decay and provide all the necessary soul for the afterlife, food, tools, clothing, household items of the deceased person. To keep their bodies Egyptians mummified the dead. Initially this was done using skins, mats and webs, which wrapped the body, and later put it in wooden coffins, which in turn was placed in a stone sarcophagus. Before using stone construction, the Egyptians buried their dead in "mastabi" - this is an Arabic word meaning "bench". So workers in excavations called surface part of the tomb because they resembled the shape of the brick benches in front of the houses of Egyptian peasants. They consist of two parts: above ground and underground, the underground burial chamber was always on the coffin of the dead and other facilities for burial offerings and sacrifices. Tomb of the Pharaoh to be the biggest, best equipped, the most valuable gifts in the most expansive zaupokoen temple. In his appearance must also be distinguished from other layers of tombs of Egyptian society. From mastaba tomb became a pyramid.
Who is the founder of the Egyptian pyramids?
It is believed that the creator of the Egyptian Pyramids Imhotep. He was a contemporary of Djoser - the founder of the third dynasty (3000 years BC). Djoser, still alive, began to build his tomb - solid mastaba, which is partly preserved. It is not known how they crossed paths of Imhotep and Pharaoh. But after meeting Djoser built already abandoned his tomb and began building the first truly invented by Imhotep pyramid. Pyramid look like on a traditional mastaba with previously unseen dimensions, is placed second, smaller. So six decrementing mastabi. This is the way we were built terraced pyramids. Temple complexes around the pyramids were also invented by Imhotep.
The types of pyramids.
Egyptian pyramids are not the same shape. The oldest of their kind are terraced pyramids - to which it belongs and the pyramid of Djoser. There is an unusual pyramid near staplovidna Dashur. The walls and form bend. It is believed that the original builders had intended to make it higher, but were later abandoned and complete it faster. That made the strong break in the form in. The other type, which is the most common form of the pyramids in Egypt right quadrilateral pyramid with a square base.
How were the pyramids built in ancient times?
What fascinates us at the Pyramids, the technical achievements of their builders. "The mind can not understand how they could gain such immeasurable kolichetsvo stone" - Philo says. The fact is that the smallest block of invited largest, Cheops, pyramid weighed more than two tons, and the largest is about 40 tons. It is believed that with the help of wedges and hammers were minted in huge blocks of stone quarries on the banks of the Nile. I processed them in place and then they gravitate to the place of newly built pyramid with papirosovi ropes. In these quarries are found ropes and other tools that are used by masons. Herodotus, who lived two thousand years after the Great Pyramid was built, says that this pyramid was built for 20 years, and in construction and were constantly busy one hundred thousand people who were changed every three months. Herodotus also wrote: "So when Cheops became king, he brought the country to misery in all respects. Firstly, close all the temples and so the Egyptians were not able to make sacrifices. Then forced everyone to work for it. Ordered on some boulders dragged from the quarry in the mountains down to the Arabian Nile others - to carry unloaded on rafts in the river boulders and carry them down to the Libyan mountains. "

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