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събота, 15 декември 2012 г.

Many group like meerkats place of education their posterity much like we do. But do they learn lessons like humans?

Welcome to Meerkat Institute. Initiation is free, and lunch is provided, though the only thing on the menu is scorpions. While scorpions are tasty and nutrient, they are extremely ticklish. Just one misapprehend with an inexperienced eye or an overeager paw could mean death for an unsuccessful meerkat. So young meerkats have to go along with erosive classes.

Instruction – or, as psychologists call it, pedagogy – is defined as a kind of imparting between two or more individuals that results in the transmit of judgment or skills, according to Hungarian developmental psychologists Giorgy Gergely and Gergely Csibra. To fit as instruction, the preceptor must also give a new form to his or her behaviour by tailoring lessons based on the consummation of the scholar. And the judgment transferred must be advice that can be applied to new clan, objects, places, or events – what is known as generalisable advice. To maim the oft-quoted idiom, showing a man where to find a fish is not instruction, but instruction a man how to find fish is.

Back in meerkat institute, accomplished adults prepare their students with dead scorpions that have already had their stingers sequestered. This way, the young can learn how to carry the esculent parts. Once they've mastered that task, the adults prepare dead scorpions with stingers still untouched. It is much easier for the juveniles to learn to carry stingers from dead scorpions than ones that are alive and squirming. Lastly, the adults prepare the juveniles with alive, mortal scorpions. In this way, the inexperienced pups learn to effectively interact with scorpions progressing from completely safe specimens to increasingly ticklish ones, according to their age and skills.

So, the adult meerkats put or set to rights the course of studies – and, therefore, their own behaviour – based upon the behaviour of the juveniles. However, the adults never actually make certain individual scorpion-killing methods, they merely procure the materials. It would be like a cooking school-master who provided her students with pots, pans, knives, and ingredients, but no prescription. Instructors at the meerkat  litterateurs don't actually teach, at least according to the explanation outlined by Gergely and Csibra.

Tap class

Tandem-running ants may come closer. Like meerkats, when one ant knows the place of food, it explicitly modifies its behaviour so that the second ant can learn it as well. After leaving the nest, the demonstrator slows down or stops statedly so that the pursuer can memorise the route between the nest and the food beginning. If the train gets interrupted, the choregus will wait for the learner to turn back before resuming the task. The way this works is that the knowledgeable ant takes the front place, and requires perpetual tapping on his rear end in order to be durable demonstrating the path. The learner uses his antennae to tap the choregus as if to say, "I'm remunerative circumspection, show me the way." While both meerkats and ants put or set to rights their lessons based upon the behaviour of their students, only for ants is the interaction explicitly social and bidirectional.

However, this form of interaction among ants still doesn't fit the according to established form criteria for instruction. This is because the intelligence that is transferred between the two ants is very much peculiar, and firmly situated within the here-and-now. Rather than showing each other how to find food more in most cases, the intelligence provided is sincerely where food can be found at a peculiar second in time. Many other animals teach using this peculiar form of intelligence flow. Bees unfold work out dances to indicate the place of food and monkeys use various calls to promulgate others of the nearness of predators. A howler monkey that screams to animate others of an atmospheric predator can't bestow confer something like "atmospheric predators tend to hunt during the daytime," or "atmospheric predators come from the north." Cheetahs show their young how to stalk prey, which is universal, but like meerkats, their interaction is not explicitly affable.

Intelligence in want of food

In fact, every known instruction-like interaction among non-human animals involves only one peculiar kind of intelligence translate. Only human instruction fits all three criteria. And, more importantly, only humans are indiscriminate teachers. Humans teach everything. Humans teach anything.

We teach discriminating morbid concretion and how to tie shoes. We teach biochemistry and computer learning, carpentry and clay ware. When I was in between the extremes institute, I took an after-institute calligraphy class. I spent two seasons trying football, one period of the year attempting basketball, and one acquisition of knowledge volleyball. I took attracting classes and coloring classes, and spent one long afternoon acquisition of knowledge the art of blossom distribution. In institute, I enrolled in a badminton dependent on suffrage. I spent two years trying to learn to play the guitar.

What is it about humans that allows us to teach in a way that no other living being does? Gergely and Csibra argue that human imparting itself is specific. They write, "If I point at two aeroplanes and tell you that ‘aeroplanes fly’, what you learn is not restricted to the particular aeroplanes you see or to the not absent adjoining matter, but will get ready you generic judgment about the kind of artifact these planes belong to that is generalisable to other members of the division and to shifting contexts…"

What they're saying is that the generalisability of the intelligence is unmistakable within the giving itself. They be permanent, "If I show you by by the hand proof how to open a milk carton, what you will learn is how to open that kind of container," not how to open only that particular container. The transmittal of catholic comprehension is tacit within human giving, whether that giving is linguistic or not, it doesn't need to be deduced or inferred by the learner.

Of all the animals in the world, only humans build skyscrapers, tread on the heels of recipes, play backgammon, learn statistics, derive DVDs by mail, and place laser-wielding robots on Mars. The kind of agriculture that humans enjoy can only exist because we are so trained accomplished at education and at acquisition of knowledge from teachers. In most ways, the differences between humans and non-human animals are ones of step rather than of kind. But there’s one unreserved contrast between our group and every other. We teach, and we teach anything.

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